Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent. At about 30.2 million km² (11.7 million sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers six percent of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4 percent of the total land area. With 1.0 billion people (2009,), it accounts for about 14.72% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagoes. It has 54 fully recognized sovereign states ("countries"), 9 territories and three de facto states with limited recognition.
Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is the origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors, as well as later ones that have been dated to around seven million years ago – including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human) found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago. Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. The African expected economic growth rate is at about 5.0% for 2010 and 5.5% in 2011.
Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the middle of the 20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation perhaps as early as 7 million years ago. Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to approximately 3.9–3.0 million years BC), Paranthropus boisei (c. 2.3–1.4 million years BC)and Homo ergaster (c. 1.9 million–600,000 years BC) have been discovered.
Throughout humanity's prehistory, Africa (like all other continents) had no nation states, and was instead inhabited by groups of hunter-gatherers such as the Khoi and San.
At the end of the Ice Ages, estimated to have been around 10,500 BC, the Sahara had again become a green fertile valley, and its African populations returned from the interior and coastal highlands in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the warming and drying climate meant that by 5000 BC, the Sahara region was becoming increasingly dry and hostile. The population trekked out of the Sahara region towards the Nile Valley below the Second Cataract where they made permanent or semi-permanent settlements. A major climatic recession occurred, lessening the heavy and persistent rains in Central and Eastern Africa. Since this time, dry conditions have prevailed in Eastern Africa and, increasingly during the last 200 years, in Ethiopia.
The domestication of cattle in Africa preceded agriculture and seems to have existed alongside hunter-gatherer cultures. It is speculated that by 6000 BC, cattle were already domesticated in North Africa. In the Sahara-Nile complex, people domesticated many animals, including the donkey and a small screw-horned goat which was common from Algeria to Nubia. In the year 4000 BC, the climate of the Sahara started to become drier at an exceedingly fast pace. This climate change caused lakes and rivers to shrink significantly and caused increasing desertification. This, in turn, decreased the amount of land conducive to settlements and helped to cause migrations of farming communities to the more tropical climate of West Africa.
By the first millennium BC, ironworking had been introduced in Northern Africa and quickly spread across the Sahara into the northern parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and by 500 BC, metalworking began to become commonplace in West Africa. Ironworking was fully established by roughly 500 BC in many areas of East and West Africa, although other regions didn't begin ironworking until the early centuries AD. Copper objects from Egypt, North Africa, Nubia and Ethiopia dating from around 500 BC have been excavated in West Africa, suggesting that trans-saharan trade networks had been established by this date.
By Greg Dickson
Coach hire services are the best specifically when the quantity of travelers is more than one. One can avail these services for a wide range of reasons, for example, for a family trip, trip with friends, trip of artists to some music holiday, trip of guests to go to a marriage function and so on. Due to this impressive range of uses, you've got to select the car according to the nature of your trip.
While booking, remember to stipulate the dimensions of the automobile. The classification of the coaches is also a vital point to ponder over. The classification of coaches is as follows:
The most elementary car is named as budget car. If you're on a small budget then it's the right choice for you. There are no luxury features in this vehicle. If you are to travel few miles, then you can go for it. Moreover, if comfort isn't of much importance then again budget auto is the best option available.
The class of auto typically used is known as standard vehicle. One can properly say it's most inexpensive option available for a long distance journey. You get provided with an audio entertainment system in this sort. Without doubt, it's the most well-liked class of vehicle.
When style is demand of your travelling, executive cars can be selected. You are provided with additional comforts in this class. There are available a toilet, galley, air-conditioned environment etc in it. These are preferred for long distance journeys along with comfort level. As a result, your journey is made more pleasurable to you.
The highest class of vehicle is called luxury cars. You can inspire any person by selecting this service, as it is providing you with comfort and luxury side by side. There are available services like satellite TV and host services. The option under debate is the most costly one. A little number of companies is giving you this service; therefore , it can be a challenge for you to find this service.
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By Mark Townsend
When trying to set up a holiday, not a lot of people desire to gain from plans that entail adventure holidays. Most people opt to select holiday seasons in a proven method, eg heading to Wonderful Hawaii or Paris when feeling especially romantic. Nevertheless, the issue with such traveller's destinations is the undeniable fact that they can become trite as time passes. By way of example, if you make a decision to visit Gorgeous Hawaii on a break, there are times of the year when we could need to deal with bigger crowds, because this is well-liked destination for a lot of people. If you do not have enough funds to reserve a non-public area personally, you possibly won't have so much fun times.
Even allowing for that this doesn't should be the case in any way. If you have a look at reports on adventure holidays, you may recognize that there may be more than 2,500 vacation spots which you can pick from. So you do not actually should limit themselves to destinations that many persons are familiarised with. If you're looking for a big change of pace as well as to a very good time on your holidays, think about planning one of those adventure holidays, as they most likely can give you all of that and a lot more.
The undeniable fact that you can find over 2000 destinations for adventure holidays is similarly a blessing and also a curse. On one hand, you will find that it's super easy for somebody to pick destinations for adventure holidays to suit just about any taste. However , you may have plenty of difficulty reading thru this 1 or 2 adventure holidays to discover the one which you want. Nonetheless there's also a super straightforward methodology around this. When you're looking for adventure holidays you can have pleasure in, you could test and make usage of vacation information net websites that might assist in making the work of selecting a location far easier.
For example when you wish to find family adventure holidays, you could have at least an imprecise concept of things like what amount you need to devote and which place you want to travel to. For people that have vague details, you can then visit one of these easy traveller information sites, and after that enter the content in a form. Such sites often have the capability to dig through such info and come up with family adventure holidays that match your standards precisely. Whether the website delivers plenty of systems of family adventure holidays, you could attempt and make use of more standards to purify the search down a tiny bit. As an example , you might utilize your monetary budget or perhaps selection of area you prefer to explore as a technique to find the material as has been outlined above.
You may also find family adventure holidays employing some other criteria, as an example, the type of activity you want for taking part in also. For example, if you wish to go snow skiing instead of camping outdoors, the website will give you nearly all the ski places which match your other standards. Trying one of these family adventure holidays can be quite a lot of fun.
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By Randall Heiserman
Pretty much any airline sim may just be genuinely a lot of money, although you'll soon find you should not pay out a whole lot to really find something great. Exactly as a great deal of downloads might show you, you may procure the amazing undertaking you have been struggling to find, and never have to devote a lot of cash.
It's simply a result of the fact that it's a venture which is generated by means of authentic air travel loving developers who truly savor these kinds of adventure. Those programmers hoped to make the most outstanding offering, and you will get pleasure from the company's great persistence.
It's important to remember that that it's nonetheless likely going to set you back a bit of cash, except you'll notice a variety of amounts of purchase price. Anyone may obtain the elementary simulation for a little less, to be sure you happen to be ready to travel.
Yet, just in case you want more benefits, there's the ability to fork out even more. Different types of characteristics consist of new air crafts, more destinations, along with similar details. That gives buyers the ability to purchase a model of Pro Flight Simulator intended to complement you.
The fascinating part when it comes to this simulation is that you simply will perpetually have quite a few assorted sorts of air carriers to consider.
Thus, you have countless possibilities to indeed think about the manner in which you'll want to get up through the sky.
Still, you have got to be aware that it's most likely probable to sometimes be tricky to understand it starting out, which is a piece of the appeal. While it's true this will show a lot less particulars, to ensure you will not be expected to address trivial things which include your individual nuisances whilst one is soaring, the program will continue to handle legitimate components.
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You may be familiar with renting a car if you travel on business in your country or just need a temporary replacement while yours is in the shop. But if you need to rent a car while in another country, there are general car rental conditions that can vary significantly by country. Even if you use an international car rental company, the conditions outlined in your rental agreement may include requirements specific to where you plan to drive the car.
Renters may be restricted on where they can drive a rental car depending on the country they are in. If you drive in restricted areas, not only do you face paying high fees, you risk voiding your insurance coverage. There may be limits on the number of miles you can drive or a maximum distance from the rental company you are permitted to drive the car. These may be strict limitations that are non-negotiable or they may be allowed as long as you are willing to pay additional fees. To enforce these conditions, rental companies rely on GPS technology which is installed in their rental cars. Some countries may actually require renters maintain a particular speed limit which they monitor through the GPS. There are countries that have no driving restrictions and allow unlimited mileage which is included in rates.
Every country has established minimum driving ages which some car rental companies use for their driver requirements. However, it is not unusual for the rental age to be higher because of liability. The biggest difference in driver requirements that exists between countries is the driver's license. International rental companies will ask which country issued the driver's license. Many do not recognize licenses issued from other countries and require renters to secure an International Driving Permit. The Permit must be presented to the car rental company along with the driver's license.
Car rental and Insurance
The types and costs of insurance can vary greatly by country. In countries like the United States and Canada, it is up to the renter to purchase additional insurance when renting a car. Car rental companies in countries in the Middle East, Europe, Australasia, and even Europe typically include specific insurance in their rental rates. These insurances cover third party liability, theft, and the general Collision Damage Waiver (CDW). Excess insurance is common in these countries. It is a type of coverage that is similar to a deductible and is intended to dissuade renters from filing damage claims. This particular charge, while not widespread, has been introduced in the United States or Canada. But can be challenging to add these new insurance fees in the United States because insurance is often regulated by individual state laws. The more you know about international conditions when renting a vehicle in another country, the better chance you have of getting a cheap car rental. By fully understanding typical fees and charges you can decide where to cut costs and still have a positive car rental experience.
Travellers are often forced to search for cheap air tickets as the budgets get increasingly tight. This is true for individuals who travel for leisure and want to spend less on tickets so they have cash once they reach their destination. Businesses that routinely pay for employees to travel also need to pay less for airfare. Corporate budgets have been reduced in recent years because of the economy. To ensure you make a saving on your airline tickets there are fortunately a number of steps you can take.
Always try to this. Of course there will be situations when you must make last minute arrangements. Otherwise, you should be able to buy tickets in advance so you get great prices. Try to fly on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, or Thursdays whenever possible. Even if you get to your destination early, you will have saved significant money. For most people it is a worthwhile tradeoff - for a little of your time, you save a lot of money.
There are two ways to do this. You can sign up for electronic newsletters or mobile alerts so you know when new offers, coupons, and discounts are available for your review. In particular, you want to be able to tell when prices increase or decrease so you can plan accordingly. Airlines offer this information directly or, if you prefer, you can sign-up for this service through any site that provides ticket information from multiple airlines.
Do Not Wait
As soon as you find a good deal, take it. It is not necessary to wait and see if the next deal is better. There will always be a better deal. The problem is at some point prices of cheap air tickets will increase again and you may miss your opportunity to save money. It is not always obvious when airlines will increase airfare. The only time you should wait is if you decide to see if you can get a last-minute deal.
Look for Refunds
You should contact you airline and request a refund of the difference if you have bought you ticket already but you find that a comparable cheap air ticket on your flight drops to a lower price. Most will honor your request. You may have to do this in person at the ticket counter. To find you what their policy is on refunds you can either call the airline directly or you can get the information from their website.
By Linda Patterson
Eventhough Belize is a small country which sits in Central America and surrounded by Guatemala, the Caribbean Sea as well as Mexico yet it is a place where the ancient Mayan Ruins are found. The country is significantly small, spanning only 8,867 square miles, approximately the size of Massachusetts.
Though small in size yet you can find a lot of astonishing sights in the area. The ancient destinations along with the natural wonders of Belize are compressed together tightly that anywhere you look, you will find excellent adventure.
Looking Into The History, Culture and Adventure Belize Has To Offer
If you are in Belize, why no go out on an adventure and learn about its culture. You can't simply visit and see the places without being drawn in to the history that shaped the present Belize culture. You certainly will be pleasantly surprised to uncover that it all dates back to 250 AD, back during the heights of the civilization of Maya.
Many archeologists believed that the indigenous Maya were the first people to have set foot and settled in Belize. Even now, the vibrant cultural treasures, artifacts, and ruins remain existing across the country. In the summit of the great civilization of the Maya-the Classic Maya era (250-900 AD), to be exact-the people of Maya built several nearby settlements in Belize. Stone structures, pyramid-temples, burial mounds, and also palaces that could have been the core of governance of the smaller cities in Maya, were found by European explorers several hundred years right after the fall of Maya, in 1500 AD. It was stated that the abundance of the Aztecs along with the arrival of Spanish explorers during 1500 were claimed to be the cause of the downfall of the Mayan civilization
Even so, the history as well as the culture of the Maya continued to be and were handed over the folks of Belize, which became the essential structure for current Belize culture.
Belize and Its Mayan Ruins
Positioned amongst the borders of Guatemala and the Belizean half of the Peten tropical forest, Caracol is in all likelihood the most essential Mayan site all over Belize. Thousand-year-old structures of fantastic palaces stand as proof of the truly great kingdoms once lived there. It was stated that Belize was once the seat of power of one of many very important kingdoms of Maya. Political struggles existed concerning the southern lowlands of the Maya which were resolved in Belize. Additionally it is where several of the ruling bodies aided manage the governance of Maya.
The positioned armies of Caracol were a force to be reckoned with. Archaeological evidences illustrate that the kingdom in Caracol was the one that in the end subjugated Tikal, is said to be another vital kingdom that once thrived in the land now often known as Campeche, Mexico.
If Caracol was acknowledged for its power, Lumanai was noted for its achievements. Lumanai, a spanning settlement of Classic Maya situated along New River, in Orange Walk District, is just one of the longest-occupied settlements in Mesoamerica.
Present in Chetumal Bay, north of Belize, Cerros is probably the initial Maya archeological site founded in Belize, throughout the Late Pre-Classic Maya, around 250 or 300 AD.
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